Definition[ edit ] Evaluation is the structured interpretation and giving of meaning to predicted or actual impacts of proposals or results. It looks at original objectives, and at what is either predicted or what was accomplished and how it was accomplished. So evaluation can be formativethat is taking place during the development of a concept or proposal, project or organization, with the intention of improving the value or effectiveness of the proposal, project, or organisation.
Fort Collins, COUSA February, When a medication is being evaluated to modify the behavior of a person with autism, one must assess the risks versus the benefits. The benefits of the medication must outweigh the risks.
Some medications can damage the nervous system and other internal organs, such as the liver. These risks are greatest in young children because an immature nervous system may be more sensitive to harmful side effects.
A good general principle is that the use of powerful drugs should be avoided in young children when the risk is great. The younger the child the greater the risk. For example, it would be justified to give a young child Prozac to stop severe self-injury, but it would probably not be justified if the only effect was that it made him slightly calmer.
If a medication improved language, its use would probably be recommended. The brain of a teenager or an adult is fully formed and the risk is less.
Many teenagers and adults with autism may benefit from Prozac or Zoloft. See my book, Thinking in Pictures, or other papers I have written for this Internet web site http: There is a possibility in some cases that if too many drugs are given to young children they may not work when the child needs them when he becomes a teenager.
This may be a problem especially with drugs such as Haldol or other neuroleptics. Practical experience has shown that the nutritional supplement DMG is safe for young children.
A medication that works to change behavior should have an obvious and dramatic effect. One of the best ways to evaluate a medication is a blind evaluation. A simple way to do this is to start the medication and do NOT tell the teacher at school. To evaluate a medication, it is important that the other therapies are not changed at the same time.
Change only one thing at a time so you can see the effects. A new medication cannot be properly evaluated if the child goes to a new school around the same time that the medication is tried.
If a medication does not show enough benefit to outweigh the risk then you should get rid of it. If the change is not obvious and is not dramatic, it probably is not worth giving the medication. It is also important to start only one medication at a time so that its effects can be evaluated.
Many people with autism are taking too many different things. If the person has been on the medication for a long time, it must never be abruptly stopped.
The dosage should be reduced slowly. There are many different brands of medications. For example, Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft are very similar, but there is just enough difference between them that some people will do better on Prozac and others will do better on Zoloft.
If you do not like one then try another. If you are using a generic, do NOT switch brands. Find a brand that works and stay with it. People with autism have very sensitive nervous systems.
Some individuals may require much lower doses of medications than people with a normal nervous system. This will vary from individual to individual. If some individuals are given too high a dose of either an older tricyclic antidepressant or one of the newer medications, such as Prozac or Zoloft, there may be side effects.
Antidepressants have a dosage window.impact evaluation is broader and assesses the overall or net effects -- intended or unintended -- of the program or technology as a whole cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis address questions of efficiency by standardizing outcomes in terms of their dollar costs and values.
The evaluation of the effects of financial regulatory reforms on infrastructure finance is the first under the FSB evaluation framework, and forms part of a broader examination of the effects of reforms on financial intermediation.
It focuses on infrastructure finance that is provided in the form of. Overview Ripple Effects Mapping (REM) is a versatile participatory evaluation tool.
The intent of REM is to collect the untold stories and behind-the-scene activities that can ripple out from a specific program or activity.
Designed. The effect of evaluation on employee performance is traditionally studied in the context of the principal-agent problem. Evaluation can, however, also be characterized as an investment in the evaluated employee's human capital.
We study a sample of mid-career public school teachers where we can. Evaluation of the Effects of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Participants With Diabetic Nephropathy (CREDENCE) The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators.
Impact evaluation assesses the changes that can be attributed to a particular intervention, such as a project, program or policy, both the intended ones, as well as ideally the unintended ones. confounding factors, selection bias, spillover effects, contamination, and impact heterogeneity.