Jim Crow legislation African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists. Although some Populist leaders, such as Tom Watson in Georgiasaw that poor whites and poor blacks in the South had a community of interest in the struggle against the planters and the businessmen, most small white farmers exhibited vindictive hatred toward African Americans, whose votes had so often been instrumental in upholding conservative regimes. Beginning inwhen Mississippi held a new constitutional convention, and continuing throughwhen Georgia amended its constitution, every state of the former Confederacy moved to disfranchise African Americans. Constitution forbade outright racial discriminationthe Southern states excluded African Americans by requiring that potential voters be able to read or to interpret any section of the Constitution—a requirement that local registrars waived for whites but rigorously insisted upon when an audacious black wanted to vote.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. Strengths and weaknesses The U. In the first decade of the 21st century, the economy was able to withstand a number of costly setbacks.
These included the collapse of stock markets following an untenable run-up in technology shares, losses from corporate scandals, the September 11 attacks inwars in Afghanistan and Iraqthe devastation of Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast near New Orleans inand the punishing economic downturn that became widely known as the Great Recessionwhich officially dated from December to June and was caused in part by a financial debacle related to subprime mortgages.
Businesses are free to hire or fire employees and open or close operations.
Unlike the situation in many other countries, new products and innovative practices can be introduced with minimal bureaucratic delays. The government does, however, regulate various aspects of all U. Federal agencies oversee worker safety and work conditions, air and water pollutionfood and prescription drug safety, transportation safety, and automotive fuel economy—to name just a few examples.
The government also operates public health programs such as Medicaid for the poor and Medicare for the elderly. In an economy dominated by privately owned businesses, there are still some government-owned companies.
These include the U. The federal government also influences economic activity in other ways. As a purchaser of goods, it exerts considerable leverage on certain sectors of the economy—most notably in the defense and aerospace industries.
It also implements antitrust laws to prevent companies from colluding on prices or monopolizing market shares. Despite its ability to weather economic shocks, in the earliest years of the 21st century the U. The country faces a chronic trade deficit; imports greatly outweigh the value of U.
For many citizens, household incomes have effectively stagnated since the s, while indebtedness reached record levels. Rising energy prices made it more costly to run businesses, heat homes, and transport goods and people. At the same time, the burgeoning federal budget deficit limited the amount of funding available for social programs.
The most important source of tax revenue is the personal income tax accounting for roughly half of federal revenue. Gross receipts from corporate income taxes yield a far smaller fraction about one-eighth of total federal receipts.
Excise duties yield yet another small portion less than one-tenth of total federal revenue; however, individual states levy their own excise and sales taxes. Federal excises rest heavily on alcohol, gasoline, and tobacco. Other sources of revenue include Medicare and Social Security payroll taxes which account for almost two-fifths of federal revenue and estate and gift taxes yielding only about 1 percent of the total.
Labour force With an unemployment rate that returned to the traditional level of roughly 5 percent per year following the higher rates that had resulted from the Great Recession, the U. After peaking in the s, when 36 percent of American workers were enrolled in unionsunion membership at the beginning of the 21st century had fallen to less than 15 percent of U.
The transformation in the late 20th century to a service-based economy changed the nature of labour unions. Organizational efforts, once aimed primarily at manufacturing industries, are now focused on service industries.
In three large labour unions broke their affiliation with the American Federation of Labor—Congress of Industrial Organizations AFL-CIOthe nationwide federation of unions, and formed a new federation, the Change to Win coalition, with the goal of reviving union influence in the labour market.
Although the freedom to strike is qualified with provisions requiring cooling-off periods and in some cases compulsory arbitration, major unions are able and sometimes willing to embark on long strikes. Advances in farm productivity stemming from mechanization and organizational changes in commercial farming have enabled a smaller labour force to produce greater quantities than ever before.
Improvements in yields have also resulted from the increased use of fertilizerspesticidesand herbicides and from changes in agricultural techniques such as irrigation. Among the most important crops are corn maizesoybeanswheatcottongrapesand potatoes. Harvesting corn on a farm near Alden, north-central Iowa.
More than four-fifths of the trees harvested are softwoods such as Douglas fir and southern pine.Among the many positive effects of the transcontinental railroad are the following improvements: faster and safer transportation from coast to coast, boosts in international and intercontinental trade, faster spreading of ideas and expansion of the United States into areas not previously settled.
China is building at least one new coal-fired power plant every week and has a seemingly limitless appetite for feelthefish.com Powder River Basin in southeast Montana and northeast Wyoming has a seemingly limitless supply..
There is increasing interest linking this supply with Asian demand through west . United States - Jim Crow legislation: African American voting in the South was a casualty of the conflict between Redeemers and Populists.
Although some Populist leaders, such as Tom Watson in Georgia, saw that poor whites and poor blacks in the South had a community of interest in the struggle against the planters and the businessmen, most small white farmers exhibited vindictive hatred.
A summary of The Transcontinental Railroad and the Admission of Western States in 's Westward Expansion (). The Transcontinental Railroad and the Admission of Western States making it markedly easier to travel west in search of land for settlement.
By , under the Pacific Railroad Act, Congress awarded the railroads . From Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium. The word history comes from the Greek word historía which means "to learn or know by inquiry." In the pieces that follow, we encourage you to probe, dispute, dig deeper — inquire.
History is not static. Coordinates. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
At million square miles ( million km 2), the United States is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area and slightly smaller than the entire.