Between the Gender Lines:
The plant sciences include applied plant physiology, nutrition, ecology, breeding and genetics, pathology, and weed science, as well as crop management. They deal primarily with two major types of crops: Only two of an estimated botanical treatises written by him are known to science: Pedanius Dioscoridesa Greek botanist of the 1st century ad, was the most important botanical writer after Theophrastus.
In his major work, an herbal in Greek, he described some kinds of plants, with comments on their habit of growth and form as The importance of phycology and sociology as on their medicinal properties.
Unlike Theophrastus, who classified plants as trees, shrubs, and herbs, Dioscorides grouped his plants under three headings: His herbal, unique in that it was the first treatment of medicinal plants to be illustrated, remained for about 15 centuries the last word on medical botany in Europe.
From the 2nd century bc to the 1st century ad, a succession of Roman writers—Cato, Varro, Virgiland Columella—prepared Latin manuscripts on farming, gardeningand fruit growing but showed little evidence of the spirit of scientific inquiry for its own sake that was so characteristic of Theophrastus.
In the 1st century ad, Pliny the Elderthough no more original than his Roman predecessors, seemed more industrious as a compiler. His Historia naturalis —an encyclopaedia of 37 volumes, compiled from some 2, works representing Roman and Greek authors—has 16 volumes devoted to plants.
Although uncritical and containing much misinformation, this work contains much information otherwise unavailable, since most of the volumes to which he referred have been destroyed. The printing press revolutionized the availability of all types of literature, including that of plants.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, many herbals were published with the purpose of describing plants useful in medicine.
Written by physicians and medically oriented botanists, the earliest herbals were based largely on the work of Dioscorides and to a lesser extent on Theophrastus, but gradually they became the product of original observation.
The increasing objectivity and originality of herbals through the decades is clearly reflected in the improved quality of the woodcuts prepared to illustrate these books.
In an illustrated manuscript on Mexican plants, written in Aztec, was translated into Latin by Badianus; other similar manuscripts known to have existed seem to have disappeared. Whereas herbals in China date back much further than those in Europe, they have become known only recently and so have contributed little to the progress of Western botany.
The invention of the optical lens during the 16th century and the development of the compound microscope about opened an era of rich discovery about plants; prior to that time, all observations by necessity had been made with the unaided eye.
The botanists of the 17th century turned away from the earlier emphasis on medical botany and began to describe all plants, including the many new ones that were being introduced in large numbers from Asia, Africa, and America.
Among the most prominent botanists of this era was Gaspard Bauhinwho for the first time developed, in a tentative way, many botanical concepts still held as valid. In Robert Hooke published, under the title Micrographiathe results of his microscopic observations on several plant tissues.
He is remembered as the coiner of the word cellreferring to the cavities he observed in thin slices of cork; his observation that living cells contain sap and other materials too often has been forgotten.
In the following decade, Nehemiah Grew and Marcello Malpighi founded plant anatomy; in they communicated the results of microscopic studies simultaneously to the Royal Society of London, and both later published major treatises.
Experimental plant physiology began with the brilliant work of Stephen Haleswho published his observations on the movements of water in plants under the title Vegetable Staticks His conclusions on the mechanics of water transpiration in plants are still valid, as is his discovery—at the time a startling one—that air contributes something to the materials produced by plants.
InJoseph Priestley showed that plants exposed to sunlight give off oxygen, and Jan Ingenhousz demonstrated, inthat plants in the dark give off carbon dioxide.Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions.
Sociology’s subject matter is diverse, ranging from crime to religion, from the family to the state, from the divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies.
Download KPSC KAS Prelims Answer Key KPSC Prelims Answer Key & KPSC Cut Off prepared by top IAS Institutes for KPSC Prelims Exam Queer theory is a field of post-structuralist critical theory that emerged in the early s out of the fields of queer studies and Women's studies.
Latest Govt Jobs in Pakistan, Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad. We Provide Valuable Online Information of PPSC SPSC FPSC NTS Educator MCQs General Knowledge Everyday Science English Urdu Math Physics Chemistry Computer Science Economics Pakistan Studies Islamic Studies Past Sample Papers, Jobs Syllabus Content Papers Test Sample Papers, Results, Admissions Open as well as Education in .
Science in the News Opening the lines of communication between research scientists and the wider community.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands. The science of forestry has elements that belong to the biological, physical, social, political and managerial sciences.