Few bother to read and understand what is written in the Bible or think critically about what Christian doctrine implies.
Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like Chinait seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meruthe only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India.
Indeed, India was once an island in the Mesozoic Ocean, but it moved north and collided with Asia. In Chinese, we get various ways of referring to India. The modern form,renders the name phonetically with characters of no particular semantic significance "print, stamp, or seal" and "a rule, law, measure, degree".
The older practice, however, was dedicated characters that might have a larger meaning. Thus, we get orin which can be a kind of bamboo but otherwise is just used for India.
Thus we get expressions like"Sanskrit,""Sanskrit characters. The rule of the Sult. The supremely foreign unification of India, of course, was from the British, under whom India achieved its greatest unity, although that was lost upon independence to the religious division between India and Pakistan.
The Moghuls and British, of course, called India by its name in their own languages i. In Chinese, Cakravartin could be rendered as"Wheel [i.
Thus, the prophecy was that Siddhartha Gautama might have become the Buddha or a Cakravartin, a world ruler. The word was ambiguous, since the term can mean simply a sovereign, but its use is paralleled by the Latin word Imperator, which simply means "Commander" and grew, by usage, into a term for a unique and universal monarch.
As it happened, many of the monarchs who began to claim ruler over all of India did usually use titles that were translations or importations of foreign words. With the Moghulshowever, the names of the Emperors, more than their titles, reflected their pretensions: In addition to these complications, Indian history is also less well known and dated than that of China or Japan.
Classical Indian literature displays little interest in history proper, which must be reconstructed from coins, monumental inscriptions, and foreign references.
It is becoming annoying to me that scholarly histories like these are almost always but poorly supplemented with maps and lists of rulers, let alone genealogies where these are known. Both Wolpert and Robb devote much more space to modern India than to the ancient or mediaeval country, and this preference seems to go beyond the paucity of sources for the earlier periods.
Keay has an apt comment for the phenomenon just noted in the other histories: In contriving maximum resolution for the present, there is also a danger of losing focus on the past. A history which reserves half its narrative for the nineteenth and twentieth centuries may seem more relevant, but it can scarcely do justice to India's extraordinary antiquity.
One drawback of Keay's book is its total innocence of diacritics. Indeed, it is even innocent of any acknowledgement of this, which would leave the reader wondering why a word is given as "Vidisha" in one citation and "Vidisa" in another [cf.
The "Saka Era,"as the Indian historical era, significantly starts rather late 79 AD in relation to the antiquity of Indian civilization. Indeed, like Greece c. The claims have progressed to the point now where not only are all of Indian civilization and all of its languages regarded as autochthonous with Indo-European languages said to originate in India, and derived from Dravidian languages, rather than arriving from elsewhere and unrelated to Dravidianbut the civilization itself is said to extend back to the Pleistocene Epoch before 10, BCwith any ruins or artifacts conveniently covered by rising sea levels.
The urge towards inflated nationalistic claims is familiar.
Particular claims about India are treated here in several places but especially in " Strange Claims about the Greeks, and about India.The existence of these and other contradictions can be explained as either (1) the original authors were not divinely inspired and therefore didn’t write stories that aligned with each other, (2) scribes made errors in copying the scriptures, or (3) the writings were deliberately revised by scribes to meet their personal biases or beliefs.
History and images of Chinese coins and other ancient forms of money. Mahapadma Nanda became King of Magadha and created what looks like the first "Empire" in Northern India.
While Indian history begins with some confidence with the Mauyras, the Nandas are now emerging into the light of history with a little more distinctness.
Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.. The translation of a large body of Indian Buddhist scriptures into Chinese and the inclusion of these translations together with works composed in China into a printed canon had far-reaching implications for the dissemination. The start of Western alchemy may generally be traced to ancient and Hellenistic Egypt, where the city of Alexandria was a center of alchemical knowledge, and retained its pre-eminence through most of the Greek and Roman periods. Here, elements of technology, religion, mythology, and Hellenistic philosophy, each with their own much longer histories, combined to form the earliest known records. While the classic form of the six relationships did contain only three pairs, the later influence of the theory of the five elements gave the impression that there should be "five relationships,".
Dramatic literature: Dramatic literature, the texts of plays that can be read, as distinct from being seen and heard in performance. The term dramatic literature implies a contradiction in that literature originally meant something written and drama meant something performed.
Most of the problems, and much of the. Study of religion - Basic aims and methods: The growth of various disciplines in the 19th century, notably psychology and sociology, stimulated a more analytic approach to religions, while at the same time theology became more sophisticated and, in a sense, scientific as it began to be affected by and thus to make use of historical and other .
Study of religion - Basic aims and methods: The growth of various disciplines in the 19th century, notably psychology and sociology, stimulated a more analytic approach to religions, while at the same time theology became more sophisticated and, in a sense, scientific as it began to be affected by and thus to make use of historical and other methods.